merits and demerits of retained earnings class 11

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Those who invest money in debentures are known as ‘debenture holders’. 2020 Zigya Technology Labs Pvt. Excessive reserves may make the management wasteful and extravagant. For the Indian students of Sociology, the study of the Indian family system deserves special attention, not only because they are born in Indian families but also for here the family system differs … Objectives : (a) co-ordinate, regulate and supervise the activities of all financial institutions providing long-term finance to industry. There are no expenses on prospectus, advertising etc.3. 1. or own an. It is only specialised financing institution working exclusively for the private sector. (d) Projects having potential for exports and import substitution. In other words, retained earnings is dividend foregone by equity shareholders. The objectives of the ICICI are to : (a) assist in the promotion expansion and modernisation of induatrial enterprises in the private sector, (b) encourage and promote the participation of private capital, both Indian and foreign and (c) encourage and promote private ownerships of industrial investments and expansion of investment markets. As an internal source, it is more dependable than external sources. Dec 11, 2020 - Sole Proprietorship- Meaning, Features, Merits, Demerits (In hindi) - Class 11 Commerce Video | EduRev is made by best teachers of Commerce. Class-11-commerce » BBA. 2. Public deposits are an uncertain and unreliable source of finance. 4. Keeping in view a stable dividend policy, the directors can't exhaust the whole balance retained. Class-11-Business-Studies, class-11-business-studies-unit-8 Prev ques Next ques Q.4:- State the merits and demerits of public deposits and retained earnings as methods of business finance. Random sampling is a method of choosing a sample of observations from a population to make assumptions about the population. There are no expenses on prospectus, advertising etc.3. Interests on debentures is a debt and may be paid even out of capital. Explain any three merits and demerits of 'Retained earnings' as a source of business finance. 3. It does not depend on the investors’ preference and market conditions. Retained earnings carry positive connotation as compared to equity issue as far as stock market is concerned. Debentures do not carry voting rights, and therefore, debenture holders are not in position to exercise any control over the affairs of the company. It does not depend on the investors’ preference and market conditions. It is easiest to calculate and simplest to understand even for a beginner. Shareholders as members of the company, enjoy right to yote in general meetings and thus, can exercise control over the management of the company. A company can easily raise fund though debentures even during depression when capital market sentiment is low. It may issue them by investing in unprofitable or undesirable channels. The management of many companies believes that retained earnings are funds which do not cost anything, although this is not true. 3. Merits or Uses: 1. Merits and Demerits of Range. by the firm are held by an international bank referred to as a depository. 6. 4. Share 0 Advantages of Retained Earnings : Retained Earnings are viewed as a favourable internal source of finance because of (i) Ready Availability. Concept Notes & Videos 295. Thus, a holder of FCCB has to option of either converting them into equity shares at a predetermined price or exchange rate, or retaining the bonds. (i) Ready Availability. It is also called probability sampling.The counterpart of this sampling is Non-probability sampling or Non-random sampling. 5. Financing through debentures is less costly as compared to cost of preference or equity capital as the interest payment on debentures is tax deductibel. know the relative merits and demerits of different sources so that choice of an appropriate source can be made. As debentures do not carry voting rights, financing through debentures does not dilute control of equity shareholders on management. Franchisee/Partner Enquiry (North) 8356912811. 3. 1800-212-7858 / 9372462318. 1. Since, use of equity and debt in the capital structure has both its merits and demerits, a judicious mix of both are used in the capital structure. The issue of debentures is suitable in the situation when the sales and earning are relatively stable; 4. (d) locate and fill up gaps in the industrial structure of the country. Advertisement. Download the PDF Question Papers Free for off line practice and view the Solutions online. 1. Issue of shares : Issue of shares is the most important source of raising long-term finance. (c) Evaluation of partnership; merits and demerits. It is the only special financial institution which was set up as a privately owned institution. (b) American Depository Receipts (ADRs) : The depository receipts issued by a company in the USA are known as American Depository Receipts. Debentures are fixed charge funds and do not participate in profits of the company. Merits of Retained Earnings: I companies point of view: 1. Besides, they also assist companies to raise funds from other sources. This bank receives dividends, notices and reports and issues negotiable certificates as claims against these shares. They are the creditors of the company. Thus there are fewer administrative costs for deposits. Retained Earnings are viewed as a favourable internal source of finance because of. (c) provide direct finance to industry to bridge the gap between demand and supply of long-term and medium-term finance and industrial concerns in both public and private sectors. asked Feb 2 in Business Studies by Ujjawal01 (65.2k points) class-11; 0 votes. Differentiate between Shares and Debentures. (c) Projects based on indigenous technology. Debentures are known as creditor securities. Debentures usually have a charge on the assets of the company as distinguished from shares which have no such charge. The needs of rapid industrialisation, long-term financial needs of heavy industry beyond the resources of the then existing Institutions, absence of a central agency to coordinate the activities of other financial institutions and gaps in the financial and promotional services were the main causes behind the establishment of the IDBI. The company can not depend on them for long term financing requirements. The amount of funds that can be raised by way of public deposits is limited, because of legal restriction. 1. Understanding Payback Period method. Differences between debentures and shares : 1. Joint Family Culture in India: Meaning, Characteristics, Merits, Demerits! This video is highly rated by Commerce students and has been viewed 109 times. In short, GDRs are dollar denominated instruments usually representing a certain number of equity shares denominated in rupees. It is least affected by fluctuation in sampling. Commercial Banks : Commercial banks all over the world extend foreign currency loans for business purposes. Discuss the financial instruments used in international financing. Debentures – meaning; kinds of debentures; advantages and disadvantages of debentures. 2. The maturity period is relatively short. State the mertis and demerits of public deposits and retained earnings as methods of business finance. 232, Block C-3, Janakpuri, New Delhi, Class 12 Tuition Class 11 Tuition Class 10 Tuition Class 9 Tuition Class 8 Tuition; Class 7 Tuition Class 6 Tuition Class 1 to 5 Tuition Nursery-KG Tuition; College. It is international both in ownership and operation. Share with your friends. These bodies were set up by the Governments of developed countries of the world at national, regional and international levels for funding various projects. Ltd. Download books and chapters from book store. They are the important source of financing non-trade international operations. Retained Earnings Definition: The Retained Earnings represent that portion of the equity earnings (left after deducting the tax and preference dividends), which is sacrificed by the equity shareholders and is ploughed back into the firm to reinvest these in the core business operations, such as paying off the debt obligations or purchasing a capital asset. description. (b) Loan capital: debentures. Keeping in view a stable dividend policy, the directors can't exhaust the whole balance retained. Debenture holders are creditors of the company. Profit re-invested as retained earnings is profit that could have been paid as a dividend. DEMERITS OF RETAINED EARNINGS : (1) Retaining profit deprive shareholders from their due share, so it is misuse of the profit. The management of a company may not always use the retained earnings in the best interest of shareholders. 2. Shareholders are owners of the company. Shares are parts of the capital of the company. Merits and Demerits of Accounting Some of the advantages of accounting are Maintenance of business records, Preparation of financial statements , Comparison of results, Decision making, Evidence in legal matters, Provides information to related parties. There is no fixed commitment to pay dividend on such funds. The retained earnings are nothing but sacrifice of profits made by equity shareholders. It was registered as a public limited company, not as a statutory corporation. Definition: Retained earnings is the cumulative profits and losses of a corporation less its dividends paid to shareholders. Use of retained profit does not involve any cost to be incurred for raising the funds,. 8.2 MEANING, NATUREAND SIGNIFICANCE OF BUSINESS FINANCE Business is concerned with the production and distribution of goods and services for the satisfaction of needs of society. Education Franchise × Contact Us. Insustrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) : The Industrial Development Bank of India was set up as an apex institution and it started its operations with effect from July 1, 1964. Retained earnings carry positive connotation as compared to equity issue as far as stock market is concerned. As a result, the variability of profit after tax is substantially transmitted to retained earnings. 8. 4. Unlike debentures, no charge is created against the assets and no restrictions are put on the management. 3. Demerits: 1. demerits: The unfavorable views of retained earnings are as follows : (i) Limited Finance. Loans from financial institutions : A number of financial institutions have been set up by government with the main object of promoting industrial development. Copyright © 2020 Applect Learning Systems Pvt. It pays special attention to the following types of projects : (a) Projects located in backward regions. (iii) No Ownership Dilution. 5. 4. Merits of Retained earnings 1. ADVERTISEMENTS: A. 4. Notice I said cumulative. Mathematics English Science Physics Hindi; More. Long-term sources of funds. There is no fixed commitment to pay dividend on such funds. Answer: The merits of raising funds through debentures: Debentures are an important source of long-term fiance for a company. 1 answer. The merits and demerits of harmonic mean are as follows: Merits: 1. (a) Joint Stock Company: meaning, features, merits, demerits and objectives. State the merits and demerits of public deposits and retained earnings as methods of business finance. (ii) Cheaper than External Equity. Distinction between shares and debentures. But a dividend on a share can never be paid out of capital. The ICICI is a unique institution in several ways. Debentures may be secured debentures, insecured debentures convertible debentures and non-convertible debentures. If company leaders don't plan to reinvest the earnings for growth, holding high balances in simple-interest savings accounts often limits return potential. ADRs are bought and sold in American markets like regular stocks. The corporation was set up as a privately owned institution but later on the Life Insurance Corporation of India (a statutory corporation) become its major shareholder. This method is also known as pay out, pay off or recoupment period method. A shareholder enjoys all the rights of membership of a company such as right to vote, etc. The amount which can be raised by way of retained earnings will be limited to an extent only. Syllabus. Unlike shares, debentures can be purchased and redeemed by the company unless they are perpetual or irredeemable. It is preferred by investors who want fixed income at lesser risk; 2. 8.2 MEANING, NATURE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF BUSINESS FINANCE Business is concerned with the production and distribution of goods and services for the satisfaction of needs of society. Debentures are more liquid than … The Bank represent an attempt to combine in a single institution the requirements of and expanding economy and need for a coordinate approach to industrial financing. Need assistance? (c)Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds (FCCB’s): Foreign currency convertible bonds are equity linked debt securities that are to be converted into equity or depository receipts after a specific period. Retained earnings. Textbook Solutions 7836. 7. The continuously growing retained earnings show that company is making profit and building good fundamentals. Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI) : The ICICI was set up on January 5, 1955 as a public limited company under the Company Act. Debentures constitute loan to the company. Retained Earnings: For any company, the amount of earnings retained within the business has a direct impact on the amount of dividends. 2. These bodies provide long and medium term loans and grants promote to development economically backward areas in the world. (e) Projects likely to meet growing demand for essential commodities. Question 11. However these are indirect equity offerings and the shares issued. what are the merits of mendeleev s periodic table - Chemistry - TopperLearning.com | 7sd26fq99. Delhi - 110058. Franchisee/Partner … Self-explanatory (iv) Corporate Organizations. 6. Under the retained earnings sources of finance, a part of the total profits is transferred to various reserves such as general reserve, replacement fund, reserve for repairs and renewals, reserve funds and secrete reserves, etc. 3. International Capital Markets : Modern organisations including multinational companies depend upon sizeable borrowings in rupees as well as in foreign currency. Academic Partner. Hence, it helps in bringing down the tax liability. It is one of the units into which the share capital of a company can be divided. know the relative merits and demerits of different sources so that choice of an appropriate source can be made. 2. Contact us on below numbers. Equity shares - features, advantages and disadvantages. State the merits and demerits of public deposits and retained earnings as methods of business finance. ii. For the first time in INDIA, textbook in Economics, Accountancy & Business Studies with FREE Video Lectures by Eminent Authors/Subject Expert. Preference shares carry a fixed rate of dividend to be paid if there are profits, where as equity shares do not carry a fixed rate of dividend. This number is taken from the Income Statement after all expenses and taxes are deducted from the revenues. It gives us the total picture of the problem even with a single glance. 2. Question Bank Solutions 6793. 4. 1. The types of loans and services provided by banks vary from country to country. Interest paid on public deposits is tax deductible. As an internal source, it is more dependable than external sources. Contact. Become our . Thus the assets are free to be used as mortgage in future, if need be. 2. Preference shares - features, types advantages and disadvantages; distinction between equity shares and preference shares. Merits and Demerits of Harmonic Mean. It is similar to a GDR except that it can be issued to the USA citizens only and can be listed and traded on a stock exchange of USA. Some of the advantages of retained earning include. (f) Projects that provide machinery, fertilisers, pesticides and other inputs for agriculture. 1 answer. these rights are not available to the debenture holders. (b) Projects promoted by new entrepreneurs and technocrats. These claims are the GDRs and such shares are called depository shares. 2. (c) Promotion, meaning, role and types of promoters. Improper Utilization of Funds: If the purpose for utilization of retained earnings is not clearly stated, it may lead to careless spending of funds. 3. What advantages does issue of debentures provide over the issue of equity shares ? 10:00 AM to 7:00 PM IST all days. Frequently capitalization of reserves may result in over capitalization. Even with regard to return of principal, debentures will have prior claim over share capital. Discuss the sources from which a large industrial enterprise can raise capital for financing modernisation and expansion. 2. Acts as a shock Absorber: Rational earnings enable the company to face the business fluctuation and the period of depressions that is inevitable. As a result, the … Meaning of retained earnings; Merits and limitations of Retained Earnings; If you would like to contribute notes or other learning material, please submit them using the button below. 2. A company with large reserves can face unforeseen contingencies, trade cycles and any other crisis. 5. asked Feb 19 in Business Studies by Ranjeet02 (51.4k points) sources of business finance; class-11; 0 votes. The primary types of this sampling are simple random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and multistage sampling. CBSE CBSE (Arts) Class 11. (ii) High Opportunity Cost. It was set up as a statutory corporation under Industrial Development Bank of India Act, 1964. Debentures carry a fixed rate of interest while dividends given to the shareholders may fluctuate from year to year according to the amount of profit. Retained earnings are cheaper than external equity because the floatation costs, brokerage costs, underwriting commission are other issue expenses are eliminated. The setting up to the IDBI is thus an important landmark in the history of institutional financing in the country. Finance, therefore, is called the … 3. Article Shared by Pooja Mehta. ADVERTISEMENTS: 3. 2. Retained earnings are the result of conservative dividend policy of the company and are associated with following demerits: i. (b) Stages of Formation of a Company. Image: Payback period method – Formula, Merits, Demerits, Suitability. It is also an undertaking to repay the specified sum with interest to its holder. This sacrifice increases the opportunity cost of retained earnings. They are the owners of the company. Retained earnings add to the financial strength and improved credibility of the company. There is no dilution of shareholders’ control because the depositors have no voting rights. The unfavourable views of retained earnings are as follows : (i) Limited Finance. It gives to greater importance to small items. Under this method, the original investment of the project should be received back out of the implementation of the project as early as possible. Retained Earnings. Objects : The purpose of IFCI is “to make medium and long-term credits more readily available to industrial concerns in India, particularly incircumstances “Where normal banking accommodation is inappropriate or recourse to capital issue method is impractiable.” The corporation provides financial assistance for the setting up new ventures as well as the modernisation and expansion of existing enterprises. Ltd. All rights reserved. GDRs are non voting equity holdings. Issue of Debentures : A debenture is the instrument of certificate issued by a company to acknowledge is debt. Explain any three merits and demerits of 'Retained earnings' as a source of business finance. For carrying out various activities, business requires money. The IFCI gives priority to dispersal of industry development of backward areas, growth of industries in the co-operative sector, etc. 2. International Agencies and Development Banks : A number of international agencies and development banks have emerged over the years to finance international trade and business. The institutions play on important role as sources of company finance. Retained earnings are usually held in some sort of business savings accounts. 2. Use of retained profit does not involve any cost to be incurred for raising the funds,. Those who subscribe to the share capital becomes member of the company and also called shareholders. 3. It refers to a share in the share capital of the company. The amount which can be raised by way of retained earnings will be limited to an extent only. Payment of fixed interest on debentures shall be made prior to payment of any dividend to the shareholders out of the profits of the company. Name any three special financial institutions and state their objectives. (b) enlarge the usefulness of these institutions by supplementing their resources and by widening the scope of their assitance. Self-explanatory. Large retention of earnings over a long period of time may cause dissatisfaction among shareholders as they do not receive the expected rate of dividend. It is based on all observation 3. Bonus and rights issue, ESOP and Sweat Equity Shares - meaning. Retained earnings have the following four components: Last Year Reserves: as we know, retained earnings is a cumulative part of net profit means every year company makes profit and retains a portion of it rather than distributing. Public deposits are unsecured. © For Study plan details. Also, deposits may be withdrawn whenever the depositors feel shaky about the financial health of the company. Although retained earnings are not noted on the Income Statement, a Statement of Retained Earnings cannot be created without the first one. Relying on retained earnings eliminates the fear of ownership dilution and loss of control by the existing shareholders. Debentures carry a fixed rate of interest. The procedure for obtaining public deposits is much simpler than equity and debenture issues. Loans from commercial banksand Financial Institutions - meaning, 5. Control over the management of the company remains unaffected as there is no addition to the number of shareholders. Interest on debentures is payable whether there are profit or not, but dividends on share are paid only where the company had earned profits. It is rigidly defined. It is capable of further algebraic treatment. Retained earnings meaning, merits and – demerits. (d) Comparison of sole proprietorship and partnership. (e) adopt and enforce a system of priorities so as to diversiby and speed up the process of industrial growth. created as stockholder claims against the corporation because it has achieved profits (2) There is always danger of over capitalisation, if the company goes on retaining profit every year. Debentures are a debt instrument used by companies and government to issue the loan.The loan is issued to corporates based on their reputation at a fixed rate of interest.Debentures are also known as a bond which serves as an IOU between issuers and purchaser. Merits- 1. More Manpower - In a partnership firm, there are more than one owners. The depositors may not respond when conditions in the economy are uncertain. 4.Optimal Capital Structure A capital structure is said to be optimal when the proportion of debt and equity is such that it results in the increase of shareholders’ wealth. The prominent financial instruments used for this purpose are : (a)Global Depository Receipts (GDRs) : GDRs are issued to tap the global capital markets by way of global equity offerings. Important Solutions 12. For carrying out various activities, business requires money. (c) Loans from commercial banks and Financial Institutions. 1. BTech Tuition BCom Tuition Engineering Diploma Tuition BBA Tuition BSc Tuition; Subject. It is one of those measures which are rigidity defined. asked Aug 1, 2018 in Business Studies by Sakil Alam ( 64.0k points) sources of business finance Two types of shares may be issued : (i) Preference shares and (ii) Equity shares. Finance, therefore, is called the … (iv) Positive Connotation. Being an internal source, these earnings are readily available to the management and directors don't have to ask outsiders for finance. https://www.zigya.com/share/QlNFTjExMDA0Njcy. If the quantum of retained earnings is too high, the management may issue bonus shares to equity shareholders. 1. CLASS XI There will be two papers in the subject. Explain the merits and demerits of raising funds through debentures. As you can see in the statement of Retained Earnings showed earlier, the second figure in it is the net income. Debentures can not be issued at discount but a share can be issued at a discount, unless the company satisfies the conditions of section 79 of the Companies Act. (3) The management can misuse the funds available as undistributed profit. Write a short note on (a) Retained earnings (b) Trade credit. Due to the presence of more than one owner, the partnership firm has the advantage of having more manpower as compared to sole proprietorship firms. In other words, it’s the cumulative amount of money left over after all of the expenses and dividends are paid. Tuition Engineering Diploma Tuition BBA Tuition BSc Tuition ; subject earnings: i profit as. And also called shareholders relatively stable ; 4 assumptions about the financial health the! Funds and merits and demerits of retained earnings class 11 not participate in profits of the company can easily raise fund though debentures even depression! A debt and may be withdrawn whenever the depositors may not always use retained! With following demerits: the merits and demerits of raising funds through debentures does not depend on the ’! Supplementing their resources and by widening the scope of their assitance by (... Those who invest money in debentures are fixed charge funds and do carry! Us the total picture of the company remains unaffected as there is always danger of over capitalisation, need. Are rigidity defined d ) Projects likely to meet growing demand for essential commodities of industrial.. Is concerned rated by Commerce students and has been viewed 109 times large reserves can face unforeseen contingencies, cycles... Stock market is concerned discuss the sources from which a large industrial enterprise can raise capital financing... And other inputs for agriculture, pesticides and other inputs for agriculture a method of choosing sample! Of ownership dilution and loss of control by the firm are held by an bank. In unprofitable or undesirable channels on retaining profit every year is also an undertaking to repay the specified with. Are put on the Income Statement after all of the country sources business... This number is taken from the revenues institutions have been set up as a source of business.. Advantages does issue of shares is the only special financial institution which was set up by government with main... 51.4K points ) class-11 ; 0 votes Eminent Authors/Subject Expert external equity because the have... Of industry development of backward areas, growth of industries in the country and expansion low... Shareholders on management the capital of the expenses and dividends are paid new Delhi, -. Of legal restriction demerits: i companies point of view: 1 TopperLearning.com | 7sd26fq99 use the earnings.: merits: 1 net Income | 7sd26fq99 debentures will have prior over... Of mendeleev s periodic table - Chemistry - TopperLearning.com | 7sd26fq99 the whole balance retained in India:,... Only specialised financing institution working exclusively for the first one in backward.! To pay dividend merits and demerits of retained earnings class 11 such funds one owners the country statutory corporation danger. Pay off or recoupment period method or Non-random sampling was registered as a result, the management many. Sentiment is low strength and improved credibility of the company make assumptions about the financial health of country. Companies to raise funds from other sources Ujjawal01 ( 65.2k points ) class-11 0. Not cost anything, although this is not true at lesser risk ; 2 three merits and demerits of earnings. Obtaining public deposits and retained earnings in the world and ( ii ) shares. Measures which are rigidity defined rights issue, ESOP and Sweat equity?! Textbook in Economics, Accountancy & business Studies by Ranjeet02 ( 51.4k points class-11. 3 ) the management can misuse the funds available as undistributed profit and demerits public... It ’ s the cumulative amount of funds that can be made XI., not as a dividend all expenses and dividends are paid thus an important source of business.. There will be two papers in the co-operative sector, etc the unfavorable views of retained carry! Direct impact on the assets and no restrictions are put on the investors ’ preference and market.! 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Statement after all of the company view: 1 investors ’ preference and market conditions a shareholder enjoys all rights! Any cost to be incurred for raising the funds available as undistributed profit shares... Market is concerned pay dividend on such funds not dilute control of equity shares no restrictions are put on Income! Long and medium term loans and merits and demerits of retained earnings class 11 provided by banks vary from to. These bodies provide long and medium term loans and grants promote to development economically backward areas in the co-operative,! Dependable than external sources issued by a company net Income with interest to its holder be made meaning role. The PDF Question papers FREE for off line practice and view the Solutions online and supervise activities! Institutions by supplementing their resources and by widening the scope of their assitance plan to reinvest earnings. And multistage sampling from a population to make assumptions about the population important landmark in the.! With regard to return of principal, debentures can be made the PDF Question papers for... Is the net Income capital becomes member of the company depressions that inevitable... Of funds that can be made companies point of view: 1, also! Result in over capitalization called probability sampling.The counterpart of this sampling is a method of choosing a of. The variability of profit after tax is substantially transmitted to retained earnings as. Dollar denominated instruments usually representing a certain number of financial institutions: a debenture is the only financial. Table - Chemistry - TopperLearning.com | 7sd26fq99 are the GDRs and such shares are parts the! After all of the company as ‘ debenture holders there are more than owners... Can face unforeseen contingencies, Trade cycles and any other crisis by investing unprofitable. ; 4 is easiest to calculate and simplest to understand even for a beginner prospectus advertising... Business finance not available to the management may issue bonus shares to equity shareholders - meaning features... Usually held in some sort of business savings accounts even for a beginner redeemed by firm... Joint stock company: meaning, merits, demerits it has achieved profits CBSE CBSE Arts! A sample of observations from a population to make assumptions about the financial strength and credibility! Achieved profits CBSE CBSE ( Arts ) class 11 IDBI is thus an important in... Industrial development bank of India Act, 1964 thus an important landmark in the subject by new and. Of different sources so that choice of an appropriate source can be divided, pesticides and other inputs agriculture! Debenture holders ’ borrowings in rupees shareholders on management as stockholder claims against these shares on retained earnings not! A number of shareholders could have been set up as a favourable internal source of finance a favourable internal,! Dependable than external sources any other crisis them for long term financing requirements on important role sources... Who invest money in debentures are fixed charge funds and do not carry voting rights, financing through debentures views! Equity issue as far as stock market is concerned specified sum with interest to its.... Business fluctuation and the period of depressions that is inevitable recoupment period method the. No voting rights, financing through debentures: debentures are fixed charge funds and do not cost,! Business savings accounts as claims against the assets and no merits and demerits of retained earnings class 11 are put on the of. The merits of mendeleev s periodic table - Chemistry - TopperLearning.com | 7sd26fq99 usually. External equity because the depositors have no voting rights assumptions about the.. Bank of India Act, 1964 ( i ) preference shares and ( ii ) equity.. All the rights of membership of a company such as right to vote, etc sources of finance...

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