when was the russian civil war

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(Image source: WikiMedia Commons). He later earned his doctorate in War Studies from King’s College London. However, by the end of 1922 Soviet power had been effectively established throughout the country. 3. Not true. Leaders in White-controlled regions also resorted to grain requisitioning to feed their soldiers and conscription to fill their ranks. However, the Red Army soon struck back in both Ukraine and Belorussia and by early August were approaching Warsaw itself. Finally, the German defeat in the autumn of 1918 caused them to evacuate Ukraine and the Reds quickly moved in to fill the vacuum. (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). Kolchak advanced in the Urals and had attained his greatest success by April. The Whites advanced rapidly at first and even captured Kazan’, along the Volga River. Learn how your comment data is processed. Foreign military intervention was lukewarm at best. By the time of his assassination four years later, he had claimed more prerogatives than any president…Read …. The book is published by Casemate. These fronts alternated in significance throughout the war, with the Reds sometimes attacking and sometimes defending. This site is created and maintained by Alpha History. Russia’s Federal News Agency (FAN), underwritten by “Putin’s chef” Yevgeny Prigozhin, exclaimed: “Experts predict civil war in the United States following the presidential election.” It difficult to pinpoint a definitive end to the Russian Civil War. The Whites were also politically divided and the quality of their leadership was inconsistent. Fighting intensified in the summer of 1918, when the action spread to the eastern periphery of the Bolsheviks’ territory. Various fronts of the Russian Civil War, 1919. The Civil War was born of anti-Bolshevik activity following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the closure of the Constituent Assembly and the revolt of the Czech Legion. Abraham Lincoln – President, Emancipator… and Tyrant? London: Longman, 1996. By the autumn of 1919, they controlled a huge swathe of territory from the Polish border to the Volga. $45.00. 2. Opposition began to grow and intensify into a fully-fledged counter-revolutionary movement. World War I was very hard on the Russian Empire. Soviet propaganda promoted the idea that a White victory would be a return to the ‘old Russia’, a prospect that terrified most Russians. A loose confederation of a… The Bolshevik mission was to establish a soviet socialist republic across Russia. Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1907-1916, Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1917, Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1918-1924, Russian Revolution memory quiz – revolutionaries, Russian Revolution memory quiz – tsarists, Russian Revolution memory quiz: concepts (I), Russian Revolution memory quiz: concepts (II), Russian Revolution memory quiz: events 1906 to 1913, Russian Revolution memory quiz: events 1914 to 1916, Russian Revolution memory quiz: events to 1905. US Involvement in Russian Civil War 1918-1920. The Russian Civil War was to tear Russia apart for three years – between 1918 and 1921. THE RUSSIAN CIVIL War, which ended 100 years ago with the establishment of a totalitarian communist regime in the former Russian Empire, was one of the most fateful struggles of the 20 th century, yielding perhaps only to the two world wars in its significance. The Whites were also unsuccessful in capturing the Bolshevik stronghold of Tsaritsyn (later Stalingrad). The Poles chose to attack in Ukraine in the spring of 1920 as Soviet Russia lay nearly prostrate following two years of civil war. The Russian Civil War was a pervasive and often intense conflict. (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). In the first half of 1919 the main fighting was in the east. This book offers an account of the first phase of the civil war that followed the Bolshevik seizure of power in Petrograd in 1917. The Reds quickly set about building a new Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army, albeit with a great deal of help from a large contingent of former Czarist officers. By May 1918, the Legion was distributed along the Trans-Siberian Railway but found itself unable to move due to transport shortages and Bolshevik red tape. Behind the White armies emerged a political movement, a loose coalition comprised of monarchists, liberals, non-Bolshevik socialists and disgruntled peasants. White disorganisation and disunity was another factor. Russian Civil War Summary The treaty of B-L provided the context for the Civil War. Copyright: The content on this page may not be republished without our express permission. The Russian Civil War began with widespread resistance to the new Bolshevik order. The Civil War saw the formation of White armies and governments in different locations around Russia, particularly in the north, southern Russia and Siberia. The Civil War was fought on several fronts by different leaders and groups, each with different political ideals and objectives. shipping: + $20.00 shipping . There were several other White governments that lasted just a few weeks or months before collapsing, fleeing the Red Army or merging with other governments. There was opposition to the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution but it intensified after the closure of the Constituent Assembly (January 1918) and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918). The Red Army was an army of communists. (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). An Operational-Strategic Sketch of the Red Army’s Combat Operations, ← The Battle of Cannae – How History’s Greatest Victory Inspired Generals for 2,000 Years, The Mystery of U-853 – All U-Boats Had Orders to Surrender; Why Did This One Attack? $65.11. The war was also a struggle of immense spatial scope and at one point the front stretched some 8,000 kilometres in European Russia. →. It was a brutal conflict that produced terror, war crimes and human suffering on catastrophic levels. Some misguided historians believe the US intervention in the Russian Civil War was an imperialistic adventure. Coincident with these events, the Red forces in the northern Caucasus fought to crush a small group of Whites. Ultimately, the political divisions and military problems of the White movement, along with the Bolsheviks maintaining control of European Russia and its industrial centres, allowed the Bolsheviks to secure victory in 1921. The Russian Civil War (1918-21) was a long struggle for the control of Russia. Yet another White government was based in Arkhangelsk, a White Sea port city, 700 miles north-west of St Petersburg. To tsarists, liberals, Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries alike, the Bolsheviks had not only betrayed the promise of a democratic government, they had also betrayed Russia to the German Kaiser. Kolchak’s arrest and execution in February 1920 was an important turning point, while the retreat of Wrangel‘s army from southern Russia in November 1920 marked the Bolshevik victory in European Russia. Copyright © 2020 MilitaryHistoryNow.com. Set during the Civil War between the Reds and the Whites that followed the 1917 revolution in Russia Director: Nikita Mikhalkov | Stars: Yuriy Bogatyryov, Anatoliy Solonitsyn, Sergey Shakurov, Aleksandr Porokhovshchikov Votes: 2,644 6. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Given the extremely small armies that the contending sides could muster following Russia’s withdrawal from the First World War, it was also a war of wide-ranging maneuver, certainly when compared to the trench warfare of the latter conflict. They were joined by other groups, including former tsarist officers and loyalist militias. 2. The Russian Civil War was a three-year struggle for control of Russia, fought by the Bolshevik Red Army, counter-revolutionary White armies and other non-aligned forces. The Russian Civil War (November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as … Rarely did foreign units directly engage the Bolsheviks on their own. 1983 Civil war and military intervention in the USSR Encyclopedia Russian Book . After this coup d’etat, command of the government passed to Alexander Kolchak, a former tsarist naval commander. One is that the Bolsheviks, for all their problems, fought with a clear political objective and unity of purpose. The war began in Ukraine and south Russia during the winter of 1918, where scratch forces of Red Guards – the predecessors of the Red Army – quickly dispersed the feeble anti-communists in the area. However, the Reds themselves were soon driven out by the advancing German army, which occupied the territory later that spring as a result of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. As a consequence, foreign troops began withdrawing from Russia in 1919. Many White generals, while capable soldiers, either had political ambitions of their own or distrusted those of their fellow White commanders. The largest of these White contingents was Anton Denikin’s Volunteer Army in southern Russia, which at its peak in mid-1919 numbered around 40,000 men. The Origins of the Russian Civil War. So hard, in fact, that it led to the end of the Russian Empire. By the end of June 1918, counter-revolutionaries controlled most of the railway and with it, all of Siberia. The struggle pitted two irreconcilable parties against each other. The Bolshevik propaganda campaign was also more successful. Each of these White governments had some kind of military force under its command. THE RUSSIAN CIVIL War, which ended 100 years ago with the establishment of a totalitarian communist regime in the former Russian Empire, was one of the most fateful struggles of the 20th century, yielding perhaps only to the two world wars in its significance. Russian Civil War, (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir I. Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies.. Russian Civil War: Seeds Of Conflict. 1. The catalyst for the outbreak of civil war was an uprising by Czech Legion. However, the Red Army’s counteroffensive around Oryol and Voronezh finally drove their overextended forces back to the Crimean peninsula by the spring of 1920. By Jennifer L. Weber WHEN ABRAHAM LINCOLN TOOK OFFICE IN MARCH 1861, the executive branch was small and relatively limited in its power. Polish soldiers gathered to repel the Red Army, 1920. Their opponents, which included a broad spectrum of counterrevolutionary political currents, were known as the Whites. The civil war occurred because after November 1917, many groups had formed that opposed Lenin’s Bolsheviks. Several foreign powers who opposed the Bolshevik regime also contributed troops, weapons, supplies and intelligence to the Whites. By Richard W. Harrison. Some foreign powers were chiefly interested in protecting resources previously lent to Russia. $78.13. The Russian Civil War, 1918-1921: An Operational-Strategic Sketch of the Red Arm. These White regimes were backed and assisted by foreign governments, particularly the major Allies, though they were reluctant to become directly involved in the Civil War. This essentially concluded the Russian civil war, although there remained isolated centers of resistance in Central Asia and the Far East. Richard W. Harrison helped translate part of the official Russian history of the 1918 to 1921 Civil War. The Second Russian Civil War was a civil conflict primarily based in Russia, Eastern Europe, the parts of Central and Southwest Asia and the large areas in the Middle East. Neither side possessed an army when the fighting began, the old imperial army having collapsed during the revolutionary upheavals of 1917. In 1863… In September 1918, these two bodies merged and relocated to the city of Ufa. 1. The 'Russian' Civil Wars, 1916-1926: Ten Years That Shook the World by Jonathan Smele Paperback $21.95 Customers who viewed this item also viewed Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1 This shopping feature will continue to load items when the Enter key is pressed. There were other groups not aligned with the Bolsheviks or Whites who fought for their own objections, such as regional interests, political autonomy or independence. The collapse of the Tsarist regime and the failure of the Kerensky Provisional Government nearly led to the complete disintegration of the Russian state. By late 1918, World War I had come to an end and nobody wanted to commit large troop numbers to another major conflict. Strictly speaking, the Polish front had nothing to do with the civil war and its emphasis on class forces. On May 14th, the Legion began to rebel, killing several Bolsheviks and seizing control of Chelyabinsk, a town not far south of Ekaterinburg, where the former Tsar Nicholas II and his family were being held. This gave them better access to infrastructure, communications and supply lines. The main fighting was between the Red Army and the White Army. This new government, the Ufa Directorate, was led by a five-man committee, three of whom were Socialist-Revolutionaries. By autumn the Red armies were deep in Siberia and finally halted at Lake Baikal by the winter of 1920. How and why did the Bolsheviks win the Russian Civil War? Most foreign powers refused to recognise the legitimacy of the Bolshevik regime, dealing instead with White generals in exile. Each hoped their regime would become an alternative Russian government, gaining the support of other counter-revolutionaries, as well as recognition and assistance from foreign powers. Hope everybody can follow this. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of any material on this site without express and written permission from the author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Their victory can be attributed to several factors. These foreign interventions, launched by Allied nations at the end of World War I, generated significant controversy. On April 28 the Red Army’s counteroffensive began. Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window), a broad spectrum of counterrevolutionary political currents, Russia’s withdrawal from the First World War, a national war that pitted a reborn Polish state against its former Russian overlords, The Russian Civil War, 1918-1921. Main article: October Revolution (Central Victory)In the October Revolution, the Bolshevik Party directed the Red Guard (armed groups of workers and Imperial army deserters) to seize control of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), and immediately began the armed takeover of cities and villages throughout the for… It erupted in the wake of the October Revolution and the Bolshevik closure of the Constituent Assembly. Foreign powers also intervened in Russia in an attempt to force the collapse of Bolshevism. At first, the Poles made good progress and even captured Kiev after a brief campaign. Meet the Landsknechts – 10 Wild Facts About the Most Murderous Mercenaries of the Renaissance, Bloodletting – The Deadliest One-Day Battles in Military History, Broken Bombers – How the U.S. Military Covered Up Fatal Flaws in the B-47 Stratojet with Disastrous Results, P-47 Thunderbolt – 11 Fast Facts About Republic's Rugged Fighter Plane. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. German and Russian soldiers mingle on eve of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918. (Image source: WikiMedia Commons). However, a determined counteroffensive soon threw them back to their starting point just west of the Ural Mountains. They had little in common other than their opposition to their Bolsheviks. Some of these groups established counter-revolutionary regimes, usually based in a particular city or region. Harrison earned his Undergraduate and Master’s degrees from Georgetown University, where he specialized in Russian Area Studies. This is a basic overview of the Russian Civil War, so I've excluded quite a lot. The most significant groups involved in the Civil War were the Bolsheviks and their Red Army, and a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik groups known as the Whites or White armies. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The treaty inflicted deep humiliation on the country that people thought it was better to fight the Germans, but the Russian army had been disintegrated. Tensions between Czech Legion soldiers, who were impatient to travel, and hostile Bolshevik officials began to escalate. While the Red Army and the Cheka unfurled terror against potential counter-revolutionaries, the Whites also used it willingly against anyone suspected of supporting the Bolsheviks, including civilians, the elderly, women and children. The Bolshevik victory ensured the supremacy of the Russian Communists in the nascent Soviet Union. The Reds counterattacked the motley Whites in April and soon threw them back in what soon developed into a general offensive along the entire front. All of this was just a prelude to the decisive year of 1919. The communist program also had an inherently broader appeal to the impoverished masses. Richard W. Harrison helped translate part of the official Russian history of the 1918 to 1921 Civil War. Ufa fell in June, and Kolchak’s armies retreated through Siberia, harassed by partisans. Two of these first White governments were formed by Socialist-Revolutionaries: the Provisional Siberian Government, based in Vladivostok, and the Committee of Constituent Assembly Members, formed in Samara. There were also significant White forces in Siberia and the east (Kolchak) and in Russia’s north-west (Yudenich). Resistance continued in Siberia and Central Asia until the mid-1920s. Free shipping . The family of Nicholas II, the last Russian tsar, who had been deposed when the communists came … 5. Date accessed: December 29, 2020 4. For more information, visit our FAQ page or Terms of Use. For more information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use. The Southern Front exploded in the spring of 1919 as well, with the irruption of the White armies out of the North Caucaus. With the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918, the Bolsheviks became not just traitors to the war but a political threat to democratic-capitalist nations. Title: “The Russian Civil War 1918-21” To tsarists, liberals, Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries alike, the Bolsheviks had not only betrayed the promise of a democratic government, they had also betrayed Russia to the German Kaiser. He also was an exchange student in the former Soviet Union and spent several years living and working in post-communist Russia. British, French and American units were all sent to various Russian ports to support White forces while Japanese troops occupied Vladivostok in the east. Swain, Geoffrey. Numerous spatial and temporal aspects of the Russian civil war make it difficult to clearly identify or even date precisely. The White armies fought as separate units and were unable or unwilling to coordinate their strategy or offensives. Date published: August 15, 2019 The Provisional Government of the Northern Regions, as it was known, was headed by Nikolai Tchaikovsky, though it recognised the supremacy of Kolchak and his government. Other, lesser fronts also flared up from time to time. In November, a group of Cossack officers, encouraged and backed by the British, arrested the Ufa executive and forced them into exile. The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November 1917 until October 1922 between several groups in Russia. These included the northern front, along the White Sea; the northwestern, encompassing the Baltic States and the approaches to the Reds’ Petrograd bastion; the north Caucasus, extending from the lower Don River to the Caucasus Mountains, and; the Turkestan, which covered all of Central Asia. THE RUSSIAN CIVIL War, which ended 100 years ago with the establishment of a totalitarian communist regime in the former Russian Empire, was one of … Before taking an in-depth look at the continuity between the two conflicts, we need to first establish the boundaries of this multifa… This Russian Revolution site contains articles, sources and perspectives on events in Russia between 1891 and 1927. This made communication, collaboration and combining forces difficult if not impossible. These phony historians pick out certain facts and ignore others to give you an inaccurate view of what really happened. At this critical juncture the Poles carried out a masterful turning movement, which sent the Reds reeling back again into Belorussia and Ukraine before the conclusion of peace, as a result of which Poland was awarded considerable territory in the east. The outcome of the conflict had a profound effect on the lives of millions of people within the country and abroad for the next 70 years. The Bolsheviks and Soviets also maintained control of Russia’s industrial heartland, most of its major cities and its significant ports and railways. The Russian Civil War was a large conflict over the former Russian Empire.The collapse of the Russian empire in 1917 triggered a complex series of interlocking conflicts that lasted into the 1920s and are estimated to have cost 13 million lives, mostly civilian victims of famine and of the massacre and depredation practiced by all sides in the Civil War. At the same time, Russia’s former allies – Britain, France, the United States and Canada, among others – landed forces at Murmansk and Archangel, thus opening a front in this area. Citation information After losing the Crimean War (1853 – 1856) to the alliance of Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire, Russia faced another challenge a few years later. 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